International Workshop “Shifting Notions of Social Citizenship: The ‘Two Wests’.” June 11–13, 2014, Reid Hall, Paris

With the support of:

Department of Human Studies, University of Eastern Piedmont
Center for the Study of Social Difference (CSSD)
Department of History, Columbia University
Alliance Program, Columbia University

The theme of the workshop

The workshop will examine the impact of the widespread decline of the welfare state on long-standing claims to social citizenship, and consider consequences for democratic participation in Europe, and in the United States. Over the course of the twentieth century, expanding welfare states, most effectively (though differently) modeled in Western Europe, helped to guarantee economic security. In the quest for a more inclusive social citizenship, nation-states variously subsidized education, housing and family maintenance, as well as unemployment insurance, old age pensions, minimum wages, labor standards, the dole, and health care. These benefits or rights, helped to empower working people to participate in democratic governance. But the “welfare state” is now at risk, under the onslaught of a persuasive ‘free market’ ideology and the spread of global economies that reduce the regulatory capacities of nation-states. And so the question: Can we imagine the perpetuation of democracy in the face of a transformed welfare state? Social scientists and historians from the United States and different European countries will meet to explore how the decline of the welfare state will affect present and future conceptions of citizenship and political participation.

The program of the workshop

The workshop takes place at the Columbia University Global Center in Paris
Reid Hall, 4 rue de Chevreuse, 75006 Paris

Opening Session n. 1

Wednesday, June 11, 2014
2:00–5:30 pm
by invitation only

Chair: (to be indicated)

Welcome addresses:

Paul LeClerc, Director, Columbia University Global Center, Paris (to be confirmed)
Marc Lazar, Institut d’Études Politiques
Raffaella Baritono, University of Bologna, CISPEA

Introductory Remarks:

Alice Kessler-Harris, Columbia University
Setting the Stage: The Problem of Limits

Presentations:

Maurizio Ferrera, University of Milan
The Welfare State and European Integration: Reforging the Alliance for the XXI Century.

Ann Shola Orloff, Northwestern University
Gendered Labor Policies and the Political Prospects for Feminist Redesigns of Care in the US and Sweden

Paul-André Rosental, Institut d’Études Politiques, Yohann Aucante, École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales, and Elodie Richard, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique
Why History Matters. The Rise of ‘Vulnerable Populations’ and the Long Term History of Social Protection (1600–2014)

Discussion

Session n. 2: What Happens When Safety Nets Go?

Thursday, June 12, 2014
9:00 am–12:30 pm
Open to the public

Chair: Donna Kesselman, University Paris Est Créteil

Christian Lammert, John F. Kennedy Institute for North American Studies, Free University of Berlin.
Privatization and Self-Responsibility: Patterns of Welfare State Development in Europe and the United States Since the 1990s”

Beatrix Hoffman, Northern Illinois University
Markets against Democracy: Lessons from American Health Care.

Sébastien Chauvin, University of Amsterdam
In the shadow of employment precarity: worker loyalty, informal careers and the challenge of organizing in low-end temporary staffing

Discussion

Session n. 3: The Future of the Family

Thursday, June 12, 2014
2:00–5:30 pm
Open to the public

Chair: Mario Del Pero, Institut d’Études Politiques

Chiara Saraceno, University of Turin
The refamilization of social protection in the face of social inequality and the pluralization of family forms.

Robert O. Self, Brown University
Breadwinner Liberalism and Its Discontents in the American Welfare State: A Premise to the Future.

Daniela Del Boca, University of Turin
Social policies, motherhood and household time use across countries.

Laura Lee Downs, European University Institute, Florence
What Future for Social Protection in France? The Case of the “Colonies de Vacances”

Discussion

Session n.4: Possibilities of Resistance

Friday, June 13,2014
9:00 am–12:00 pm
by invitation only

Chair: (to be indicated)

Gro Hageman, University of Oslo
Can we still have it all? Considering the Future of Social Rights in Norwegian and Swedish Welfare States.

Birte Siim, Aarlborg University
The challenge from nationalism for European citizenship and democracy and the potentials for resistance from transnational civil society

Marisa Chappell, Oregon State University
Poor People Power: The State, Social Provision, and American Experiments in Democratic Engagement

Neil Gilbert, University of California at Berkeley
Entitlement to Conditionality: Recalibrating the Social Rights of Citizenship

Final Discussion and Closing Remarks:

12:001:00 pm

Alice Kessler-Harris, Columbia University
Maurizio Vaudagna, University of Eastern Piedmont, CISPEA.

Participants

George Aumoithe (Columbia University); Alexandre Boza (SciencesPo); Lindsey Dayton (Columbia University); Andrew J. Diamond (University of Paris-Sorbonne); Nick Juravich (Columbia University; Suzanne Kahn (Columbia University); Edenz Maurice (SciencesPo); Annett Richter (SciencesPo); Antonina Santalova (Oxford University); Bert Silverman (Hofstra University, Emeritus); Ulla Wikander (University of Stockholm)… to be continued.

For information on the conference, please contact:

Alice Kessler-Harris, ak571@columbia.edu
Maurizio Vaudagna, maurizio.vaudagna@lett.unipmn.it

Summaries

Marisa Chappell, Oregon State University, USA
Poor People Power: The State, Social Provision, and American Experiments in Democratic Engagement

The highly segmented U.S. welfare state has shaped citizenship status, bolstering the status of recipients of social insurance and other “hidden” benefits while demeaning low-income recipients of means-tested assistance as “anti-citizens,” denigrated for their visible dependence on the state. But welfare state programs have also offered the most vulnerable a site for democratic engagement and the opportunity to articulate alternative visions of political and social citizenship. This paper explores the history of such efforts – both their successes and the tensions and contradictions they have encountered – and suggests some of the lessons they may offer in an era of welfare restructuring.

Sébastien Chauvin,University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands
In the shadow of employment precarity: worker loyalty, informal careers and the challenge of organizing in low-end temporary staffing

Precarious employment generates insecurity, but also informal worker strategies to regain a modicum of certainty and protection. My paper insists on the informal loyalty relations that thrive in the shadow of precarity and welfare retrenchment, and examines the challenges these represent for labor-rights organizing within low-end, heavily outsourced industries.

Daniela Del Boca, University of Turin, Italy
Social policies, motherhood and household time use across countries

In spite of the growing economic convergence across countries (Europe and the US), social policies have remained very different with strong implications on family allocation. Generous welfare states have supported women work and fertility in Northern European countries and France, while greater labor market flexibility have allowed women returning to work after childbearing in the US and UK. In Southern Europe, still characterized by a meager welfare state and a very rigid labour market, women participation and fertility are both very low with important consequences on household well-being. We will report results of our recent research on the different impacts of social policies.

Laura Lee Downs, European University Institute, Florence
What Future for Social Protection in France? The Case of the “Colonies de Vacances”

France has a long tradition of ensuring various forms of social welfare on what I have called a “para-political space of social protection.” From within this space, social services are delivered via different kinds of civil society/state partnerships, in which the initiatives, organization and energies are generated by a range of civil society associations, while the State provides the legal framework, subventions and, on occasion, the designation « œuvre reconnue d’utilité publique », a label that facilitates fund-raising on the part of those organizations and associations that wear it. All of these organizations arose and took root in a space that lies at the confluence of public and private. Many, like the colonies, were the fruit of private and semi-public initiative; others, like the caisses des écoles and Secours national, were born of a state initiative but depended on the energetic participation of private citizens and associations. This paper looks at the ways that decades of austerity have whittled away at and reshaped France’s para-political space of social protection, particularly in its delivery of services to poor and working class children, during the “trentepitieuses” that followed the Oil Crisis (1973–4).

Maurizio Ferrera, University of Milan, Italy
The Welfare State and European Integration: Reforging the Alliance for the XXI Century

The welfare state and the European Union are the two most precious legacies of the XX century. While for several decades after WWII they worked in mutually reinforcing directions, in recent times their relationship has become increasingly strained. Drawing on Weberian theory, the paper will discuss these strains and outline possible strategies of reconciliation.

Neil Gilbert, University of California at Berkeley, USA
Entitlement to Conditionality: Recalibrating the Social Rights of Citizenship

Since the late 1970s a number of important policy initiatives have reshaped government responsibilities for social protection, particularly among programs that benefit low-income people. Examining the changing landscape of social welfare policy in the United States this paper analyzes two of the major developments during this period: the considerable growth in social spending on income-tested programs, such as the Earned Income Tax Credit, and the increasing emphasis on work-oriented requirement linked to social benefits. Drawing on T.H. Marshall’s formulation of the social rights of citizenship, the analysis highlights the extent to which modern reforms have altered the balance between entitlements and conditionality. In conclusion, the paper identifies four avenues along which issues of conditionality and entitlement are likely to be played out in future welfare reforms and suggests how progressive and conservative proposals are advancing an alternative perspective on social rights.

Gro Hageman, University of Oslo, Norway
Can we still have it all? Considering the Future of Social Rights in Norwegian and Swedish Welfare States

The Scandinavian countries have been well known for their family generous policy, enabling women to combine employment and motherhood, fathers to participate in child care and housework, and families to arrive at suitable solutions in organising their working day. At present the model is under strain caused by economy, demography as well as politics. The paper will discuss the consequences of these challenges for social citizenship and democratic participation in Sweden and Norway.

Beatrix Hoffman, Northern Illinois University, USA
Markets against Democracy: Lessons from American Health Care

Despite the failings of the U.S. system, many European countries have recently decided to experiment with various forms of privatization and “free markets” in health care. This paper will discuss the history of the market approach to health care in the U.S. and its implications for democratic participation.

Christian Lammert, John F. Kennedy Institute for North American Studies, Free University of Berlin, Germany
Privatization and Self-Responsibility: Patterns of Welfare State Development in Europe and the United States Since the 1990s

The presentation tries to capture and compare major tendencies in welfare state development on both sides of the Atlantic. Special focus will be given to concrete reform proposals as well as the framing of social policy and their impact on the visibility and legitimacy of social and redistributional policy via the tax and transfer system on both sides of the Atlantic.

Ann Shola Orloff , Northwestern University
Gendered Labor Policies and the Political Prospects for Feminist Redesigns of Care in the US and Sweden

Both Sweden and the US have been styled as world leaders in gender equality initiatives, and feminists from these countries participate in dialogues about gender equality and family policies, working to gain recognition and support for both women and men as employed caregivers or encumbered workers (³universal caregiver,² in Fraser¹s [1994] influential formulation). There are still contentious debates about the best ways to express and reach this goal. Many conceive of modern gender equality as a condition of symmetry between men and women (or ³symmetrical parenthood²), and have looked for ways for social policies to incentivize men¹s caregiving, in particular, as the ³feminization of men¹s lives² via engagement in caregiving has proved more stubbornly resistant to change than has the ³masculinization of women¹s lives² via entering gainful employment (see, e.g., Gornick and Meyers [2009]). Others have defended visions of gender equality that look to update maternalist policy legacies, conceding that most women will likely remain principal caregivers. Competing feminist policy approaches reflect different normative commitments. For many advocates, the global traffic in policy ideas encourages hopes about the portability of their preferred models. In this paper, I compare feminist policy approaches in the US and Sweden to better understand the possibilities, risks and opportunities facing gender equality advocates and the practices of care in the two countries.

Paul-André Rosental, Institut d’Études Politiques & INED, Yohann Aucante, École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales, and Elodie Richard, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, France
Why History Matters. The Rise of ‘Vulnerable Populations’ and the Long Term History of Social Protection (1600–2014)

Vulnerable populations’ have been a quickly expanding category of social protection since the 1970s in Western countries. Exhuming the (very) old roots of this category, and following their transformations over ‘longue durée’, is a key to understand the various paths currently adopted by European states in the field of social protection.

Chiara Saraceno, University of Turin, Italy
The refamilization of social protection in the face of social inequality and the pluralization of family forms

In recent years, in many European countries the scene of social support has witnessed the shifting back to individuals and families of forms of protection of both youth and old age, in case for example of unemployment with respect to the former and frailty to the latter. This has taken place vis-a-vis the phenomena of kinship ageing and increasing diversity of family forms.Family-based intergenerational support systems may be more or less efficient as well as produce conflicts of loyalty and constraints on individual strategies. They also have an impact on social inequality and on its intergenerational reproduction: a crucial issue in contemporary democracies.

Robert O. Self, Brown University, USA
Breadwinner Liberalism and Its Discontents in the American Welfare State: A Premise to the Future

In the mid-twentieth-century, the United States established a modified welfare state premised on a male-breadwinner economic model. In the 1960s and 1970s, that model came under assault from the left, as not broad enough, and from the right, as productive of dependency. The legal and political battles of that era defined the new terrain on which American social citizenship would be debated in the twenty-first century.

Birte Siim, Aarlborg, University, Denmark
The challenge from nationalism for European citizenship and democracy and the potentials for resistance from transnational civil society

The paper reflects upon the democratic challenges from the growth of new forms of nationalism across Europe for citizenship exacerbated by the economic and financial crisis. Scholars have argued that we need to reframe citizenship a new multilayered conception of citizenship which extends from the local to the transnational level, because people are no longer connected primarily to the nation state but are simultaneously citizens in more than one political community. The paper explores the potentials and problems for transnational civil society to create a European public sphere able to influence the political agenda. The focus is on the intersections of NGO/SMO’s organized around claims for social and political rights, for example in the European Women’s Lobby (EWL), the European Network against Racism (ENAR) and the European Social Forum.

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